1. How do I look and feel for changes in my breasts?

There is currently no evidence to support a specific method for checking your breasts. Please discuss with your family GP if you want more information on checking your breasts.

Breasts come in all shapes and sizes and will change throughout your life. Your menstrual cycle, pregnancy, age and weight may alter the size, shape and feel of your breasts.

It is important to be breast aware

  • Get to know your own breasts so that you will know what is normal for you. Look in the mirror at your breasts and feel your breasts from time to time.
  • Ask your GP about breast health at your next check-up.

What breast changes should I be aware of?

See your family doctor/GP promptly if you notice any of the following unusual breast changes:

  1. A lump, lumpiness or thickening in the breast or armpit
  2. Changes in the nipple such as inversion, new nipple discharge, itchy or ulcerated skin
  3. Changes in the skin of the breast such as dimpling, puckering or redness
  4. An area of the breast that feels different from the rest
  5. New persistent breast pain

Lately, I have noticed a change in one or both of my breasts. Is this cancer and what should I do?

Many women are concerned a breast change might be breast cancer. Even though this will not be true in most cases, it is very important all breast changes are carefully investigated. If it is breast cancer, finding it early will mean a much better chance of effective treatment.

If you notice a breast change or experience a breast symptom you should see your family doctor/GP without delay.

2. What is breast cancer?

Breast cancer is a group of abnormal cells which continues to grow and multiply. Eventually these cells may form a lump in the breast. If the cancer is not removed or controlled the cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body and may eventually cause death.

More information on breast cancer.

3. How common is breast cancer?

  • Women in Australia have a 1 in 7 risk of developing breast cancer in their lifetime.
  • The risk of breast cancer increases with age. Over 75% of breast cancers occur in women over 50 years of age.

4. Can men get breast cancer?

Breast cancer can develop in men, but this is rare. Male breast cancer accounts for about 1% of all breast cancer.

For men, the harms of screening mammograms are currently assessed as outweighing the benefits. These harms include undergoing unnecessary procedures, discomfort during screening, and exposure to low-dose radiation. As a result, men are not targeted in the BreastScreen Australia program and are instead encouraged to report any changes or concerns they have about their breasts to their doctor.

The Men get breast cancer too! free booklet can be ordered by calling Breast Cancer Network Australia (BCNA) on 1800 500 258.

For more information on breast cancer in men, visit BCNA or Cancer Australia.

5. What are the main risk factors for breast cancer?

The cause of breast cancer is unknown.

Some risk factors identified as increasing your chances of developing breast cancer include:

  • being a woman 50 years or over
  • having a strong family history of breast cancer
  • having previously been diagnosed with breast cancer

More information on Risk and Lifestyle factors.

6. If I have dense breasts, do I need to have mammograms or breast ultrasounds every year?

There is currently no evidence that women with dense breasts need more frequent screening mammograms.

Women are recommended to keep to their usual screening schedule, which for the majority is every two years.

Some women may have also had breast ultrasounds on the recommendation of their GP or specialist. There is currently no evidence that annual breast ultrasounds are needed for women with dense breasts who have no family or personal history of breast cancer.

7. Should I have a breast ultrasound instead of a mammogram to screen for breast cancer?

Mammograms are more sensitive at detecting breast cancer than ultrasound in women over the age of 50. Microcalcifications (small calcium deposits), which are an important early sign of breast cancer, cannot be reliably detected by ultrasound. 

8. Can you have a mammogram while you are breastfeeding?

Women who are breast feeding are advised to postpone their screening mammogram until three months after they have finished lactation. This is because a woman's breast tissue is very dense whilst breast feeding, and a mammogram is significantly less effective during this period.

If women have any breast symptoms of concern whilst breastfeeding, they are advised to see their GP without delay for a consultation, clinical examination, and appropriate diagnostic breast imaging.

9. Can you have a mammogram with a pacemaker?

BreastScreen WA do screen women with pacemakers. The positioning sometimes has to be altered a bit if the pacemaker is very prominent.

10. How often should I have a mammogram if I am a DES mother/daughter?

Women who were prescribed Diethylstilbestrol (DES) while pregnant and DES daughters who are over 40 are advised to follow normal screening recommendations (every two years). 

Annual screening is not recommended and as per usual recommendations please see your GP if you have any unusual breast changes. More information here.

11. Is it recommended for transgender women to have mammograms?

No, a transgender woman's risk of breast cancer associated with hormone therapy is substantially lower compared to cisgender women (female sex assigned at birth, female gender identity) in the general population. However, as the risk is higher than cisgender men (male sex assigned at birth, male gender identity), transgender women should be breast aware and seek medical attention about any changes in their breasts. If you have any questions please talk to your GP (References Gooren et al. (2013), De Blok et al. (2019)). See LGBTQIA+ for more information.

12. Will I be told about changes on the mammogram which are not due to breast cancer?

Changes seen on a mammogram which are not considered to be a sign of breast cancer are not reported on and women will not be notified of these benign changes.

13. Tomosynthesis / 3D Mammography

What is 3D Mammography?

Three-dimensional mammography (also called digital breast tomosynthesis) uses special computer software to create a 3D image of the breast using x-rays (mammograms) taken at different angles. A standard mammogram creates a two-dimensional (2D) image of the breast.

Is 3D Mammography better than 2D Mammography in screening for breast cancer?

Currently there is no evidence that 3D Mammography is superior in reducing death from breast cancer compared to standard 2D Mammography.

Does BreastScreen WA use 3D Mammography for screening?

BreastScreen WA uses 2D Mammography in screening because there is no evidence that 3D Mammography is superior in reducing mortality from breast cancer.

BreastScreen Australia, is actively reviewing the published medical evidence on 3D Mammography, and future decisions on breast cancer screening technology will be based on the best robust medical evidence as that evidence emerges.

14. What can I do about a rash under my breast?

Intertrigo is a rash that occurs in body skinfolds at any age eg. under the breast, in the groin, and under the arms. It is an inflammation or irritation of the skin from the rubbing of warm, moist skin against skin.

More information on Intertrigo here.

15. BSWA and My Health Record

Women with a My Health Record now have the choice to have their result letters uploaded. Women without a My Health Record are not affected.  For more information - phone 1800 723 471 or visit My Health Record.

BreastScreen WA data privacy and information disclosure

See Your information for more.

The Department of Health WA has additional information on their website.


Use our contact form or call BreastScreen WA on:

13 20 50 for appointments

9323 6700 for information

Get to know your breasts and what is normal for you. Look in the mirror at your breasts and feel your breasts from time to time.

If you notice any unusual changes in your breasts such as lumps, nipple discharge, or persistent new breast pain, even if your last screening mammogram was normal, please see your GP promptly.

Ask your GP about breast health at your next check-up.

Last Updated: 22/11/2022